Wear Testing
Stone, Concrete & Glass


Stone, Concrete, Glass
  • Automotive Safety Glazing
  • Ceramic Tile
  • Coated Optics
  • Concrete
  • Dimensional Stone
  • Glass
  • Porcelain Enamel
  • plus others
* The following suggestions are provided as a starting point for using the Taber Rotary Abraser to evaluate different materials. Based on the manufacturers recommendations, the abrading wheels should be refaced prior to each test and a consistent vacuum nozzle height should be used (measured off the specimen surface). Other factors to consider include specimen conditioning, environmental conditions, vacuum suction level, specimen cleaning, and test cycles.

Glass – Scratch Resistance
Specimen: 4 inches square
Wheels and Load: CS-17 with 1000 gram load
Evaluation: By comparison of the number of wear cycles necessary to produce an equal degree of haze or scratching with that of a standard of similar material tested under identical conditions.

Glass – Abrasion Resistance
Specimen: 4 inches square, must have a flat, even surface and run true
Wheels and Load: H-18 or H-10 Calibrade wheel with 500 or 1000 gram load, whichever combination is best suited to the desired rate of abrasion
Evaluation: By comparison of the number of wear cycles necessary to produce an equal degree of abrasion with that of a standard of similar material tested under identical conditions

Safety Glazing Materials
Specimen: 4 inches square with ¼ inch center hole
Wheels and Load: CS-10F with 500 gram load
Evaluation: Change in haze
Remarks: Reface wheels with fine side of ST-11 refacing stone

Ceramic Finishes
Specimen: 4 inches diameter or square, with ¼ inch center hole
Wheels and Load: CS-17 Calibrase with 500 or 1000 gram load
Evaluation: Visual end point, at the first sign that the wheels have worn through the surface glaze

Porcelain Enamel
Specimen: S-16 or similar plate (4 inches square with ¼ inch center hole)
Wheels and Load: CS-17 with 1000 gram load
Evaluation: Number of cycles to a visual end point determined by the first sizeable scratch as the wheels begin to penetrate the surface glaze. Also comparison with a standard of the same material tested under identical conditions. If desired, the test may be continued to a more advanced end point than the first sizeable scratch.
Remark: The hardness and density of porcelain enamel makes them highly resistant to abrasion and scratching. Because of the similarity of porcelain glaze with glass, the abrading action of the Calibrase wheels is barely noticeable in the early stages of the test although material is being slowly removed. After a time, however, the wheels begin to abrade through the surface glaze and penetrate the coarse substrate.
Remark 2: Porcelain enamel frit may be sprayed on S-16 plates for testing or specimens may be cut either before or after firing from multiple sheets. Shearing and punching of the plates is likely to cause some shattering of the enamel, this is permissible if it does not extend into the path of the wheels.
Remark 3: Special care must be taken to avoid warping the plates in firing, since flatness of the specimen is essential to accurate test results. Should the 20 gage S-16 specimen plate prove too thin to withstand the heat without warping, use heavier metal for plates.
reface wheels with fine side of ST-11 refacing stone

Concrete Floors
Specimen: 4 inches diameter or square, with ¼ inch center hole
Wheels and Load: H-22 Calibrade with 500 or 1000 gram load
Evaluation: Weight loss method, maximum depth of penetration recommended is 1/32 inch
Remark 1: Test is for abrasion resistance of cement floor hardeners or surface coatings
Remark 2: The specimen must be carefully molded for uniform thickness and smooth surface to provide continuous, even contact with the abrading wheels.

General Notes

  • To generate useful data, specimens must be flat. Specimens of uneven thickness should be shimmed so that the top surface runs true.
  • A Drive Pin Type Holder (E140-19) can be used to eliminate the need for the center hole. Specimens are attached with S-37 or S-37-1 mounting sheets and two driving pins prevent slipping.
  • The recommended specimen thickness is 6.35mm (¼ inch). Using the S-21 Extension Nut, specimens up to 12.7mm (½ inch) in thickness can be evaluated. An Arm Height Extension modification (Available from Taber Industries or Taber Distributors) will permit testing up to 40mm in thickness.
  • To subject specimens to a wet abrasion test, the Rimmed Specimen Holder (E140-75) can be used. This is useful to determine the effect of absorbed and / or surface moisture on abrasion resistance.

Reference

Title

Scope

ANSI/SAE Z26.1-1996 Safety Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment The purpose of this test is to determine whether safety glass has a certain minimum resistance to abrasion.
ASTM C501 Standard Test Method for Relative Resistance to Wear of Unglazed Ceramic Tile by the Taber Abraser This test method covers the establishment of an abrasive wear index by determination of the loss of weight resulting from abrasion of unglazed ceramic tile.
ASTM C1353 Standard Test Method Using the Taber Abraser for Abrasion Resistance of Dimension Stone Subjected to Foot Traffic This test method covers the establishment of an index of abrasion resistance by determination of loss of weight resulting from abrasion of dimension stone.
ASTM G195 Standard Guide for Conducting Wear Tests Using a Rotary Platform, Double-Head Abraser This guide covers and is intended to assist in establishing procedures for conducting wear tests of rigid or flexible materials utilizing the rotary platform, double-head abraser (RPDH).
BS EN 14431 Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Characteristics of the Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel Panels Intended for Architecture The Standard specifies the requirements for enamel coated, plane, cold rolled, heavy and light gauge steel panels intended for interior and exterior architectural use. It includes the functional and aesthetic characteristics and resistance to graffiti of these panels and the related coatings. 
BS EN 14864 Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel for Writing Surfaces - Specification The Standard specifies the requirements for the functional and aesthetic characteristics of vitreous or porcelain enamel coatings applied to plain steel for use as writing surfaces (whiteboards and chalkboards). 
DIN 52 347 Testing of Glass and Plastics; Abrasion Test; Method Using Abrasion Wheels and Measurements of Scattered Light  
DIN EN 14431 Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Characteristics of the Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel Panels Intended for Architecture The Standard specifies the requirements for enamel coated, plane, cold rolled, heavy and light gauge steel panels intended for interior and exterior architectural use. It includes the functional and aesthetic characteristics and resistance to graffiti of these panels and the related coatings. 
DIN EN 14864 Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel for Writing Surfaces - Specification The Standard specifies the requirements for the functional and aesthetic characteristics of vitreous or porcelain enamel coatings applied to plain steel for use as writing surfaces (whiteboards and chalkboards). 
EN 13310 Kitchen Sinks - Functional Requirements and Test Methods This standard specifies the functional requirements and test methods for domestic kitchen sinks, used in residential (domestic houses, guest houses, and similar) premises. This standard does not specify aesthetic and dimensional requirements. It does not apply to industrial kitchen sinks.
EN 14431 Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Characteristics of the Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel Panels Intended for Architecture The Standard specifies the requirements for enamel coated, plane, cold rolled, heavy and light gauge steel panels intended for interior and exterior architectural use. It includes the functional and aesthetic characteristics and resistance to graffiti of these panels and the related coatings. 
EN 14864 Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel for Writing Surfaces - Specification The Standard specifies the requirements for the functional and aesthetic characteristics of vitreous or porcelain enamel coatings applied to plain steel for use as writing surfaces (whiteboards and chalkboards). 
EN 1504-2 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures – Definitions, requirements, quality control and evaluation of conformity – Part 2: Surface protection systems for concrete. Abrasion Test according to EN 5470-1  
ISO 3537 Road Vehicles - Safety Glazing Materials - Mechanical Tests This International Standard specifies mechanical test methods relating to the safety requirements for all safety glazing materials in a road vehicle, whatever the type of glass or other material of which they are composed.
NF EN 14431 Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Characteristics of the Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel Panels Intended for Architecture The Standard specifies the requirements for enamel coated, plane, cold rolled, heavy and light gauge steel panels intended for interior and exterior architectural use. It includes the functional and aesthetic characteristics and resistance to graffiti of these panels and the related coatings. 
NF EN 14864 Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel for Writing Surfaces - Specification The Standard specifies the requirements for the functional and aesthetic characteristics of vitreous or porcelain enamel coatings applied to plain steel for use as writing surfaces (whiteboards and chalkboards). 
SS EN 14431 Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Characteristics of the Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel Panels Intended for Architecture The Standard specifies the requirements for enamel coated, plane, cold rolled, heavy and light gauge steel panels intended for interior and exterior architectural use. It includes the functional and aesthetic characteristics and resistance to graffiti of these panels and the related coatings. 
SS EN 14864 Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel for Writing Surfaces - Specification The Standard specifies the requirements for the functional and aesthetic characteristics of vitreous or porcelain enamel coatings applied to plain steel for use as writing surfaces (whiteboards and chalkboards). 
UNE EN 14431 Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Characteristics of the Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel Panels Intended for Architecture The Standard specifies the requirements for enamel coated, plane, cold rolled, heavy and light gauge steel panels intended for interior and exterior architectural use. It includes the functional and aesthetic characteristics and resistance to graffiti of these panels and the related coatings. 
UNE EN 14864 Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel for Writing Surfaces - Specification The Standard specifies the requirements for the functional and aesthetic characteristics of vitreous or porcelain enamel coatings applied to plain steel for use as writing surfaces (whiteboards and chalkboards). 
United Nations - ECE Regulation 43 Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Safety Glazing and Glazing Material This Regulation applies to safety glazing and glazing materials intended for installation as windscreens or other panes, or as partitioning, on power-driven vehicles and their trailers.
UNI EN 14431 Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Characteristics of the Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel Panels Intended for Architecture The Standard specifies the requirements for enamel coated, plane, cold rolled, heavy and light gauge steel panels intended for interior and exterior architectural use. It includes the functional and aesthetic characteristics and resistance to graffiti of these panels and the related coatings. 
UNI EN 14864 Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels - Enamel Coatings Applied to Steel for Writing Surfaces - Specification The Standard specifies the requirements for the functional and aesthetic characteristics of vitreous or porcelain enamel coatings applied to plain steel for use as writing surfaces (whiteboards and chalkboards).