Wear Testing Leather,
Fabrics & Textiles


Leather, Fabrics, Textiles
  • Apparel
  • Automotive Interiors
  • Aviation Interiors
  • Car Seats
  • Carpeting
  • Coated Fabrics
  • Floor Coverings
  • Footwear
  • Furniture Coverings
  • Garments
  • Home Furnishings
  • Hosiery
  • Industrial Fabrics
  • Leather Coverings
  • Luggage
  • Natural and Synthetic Fabrics
  • Nonwovens
  • Personal Accessories
  • Pile Fabrics
  • Public Transportation
  • Shoe Soles
  • Sporting Goods
  • Woven Fabrics
  • Upholstery
  • plus others
* The following suggestions are provided as a starting point for using the Taber Rotary Abraser to evaluate different materials. Based on the manufacturers recommendations, the abrading wheels should be refaced prior to each test and a consistent vacuum nozzle height should be used (measured off the specimen surface). Other factors to consider include specimen conditioning, environmental conditions, vacuum suction level, specimen cleaning, and test cycles.

Textiles

Specimen: 5 ¼ inch round with ¼ inch center hole, 4 inches diameter with ¼ inch center hole when mounted to S-36-1 Mounting Card
Wheels and Load – Delicate Fabrics: H-38 (fine) Calibrade or CS-10 Calibrase with 500 gram or 250 gram load for delicate fabrics
Wheels and Load – Coarse / Heavy Fabrics: H-18 or H-22 Calibrade with 1000 gram load
Evaluation: Visual changes (i.e. loss of luster; changes of surface; color changes; appearance of first broken threads; appearance of a hole); physical changes (i.e. thickness; air permeability; weight; strength
Remark 1: Prepare by folding a 5 ¼ inch round or square sample twice and cutting off the folded corner to produce a small central hole for the clamp screw. Mount the specimen on the holder and clamp tightly with clamp plate and nut. Adjust the clamp ring to a tight fit over the specimen and holder and draw taut by pressing the hold down ring over the edge of the holder. When the desired tension is obtained, tighten the clamp ring adjusting screw. Avoid tightening to excess so as not to buckle the fabric.
Remark 2: Use of mounting cards prevents stretch and wrinkles
Remark 3: Vacuum control should be set to prevent abradings from being trapped in the threads

Textiles – Pile Fabrics (Upholstery, Broadloom Carpet, etc.)

Specimen: 4½ round or square mounted on S-36 mounting card
Wheels and Load: H-38, H-18 or H-22 Calibrade with 500 or 1000 gram load.
Evaluation: Visual (i.e. loss of luster; changes of surface; color changes; appearance of first broken threads; appearance of a hole); or physical changes (i.e. thickness; air permeability; weight; strength or physical end point)
Remarks: Upholstery materials ordinarily require the H-38 Calibrade wheel with 500 gram load; floor coverings, such as broadloom carpets or automobile floor mats should be tested with 1000 gram load using H-18 or sometimes H-22 wheels

Leather Coverings (Luggage and Upholstery)

Specimen: 4 inches diameter or square with ¼ inch center hole
Wheels and Load: CS-10 or CS-17 Calibrase with 500 gram or 1000 gram load.
Alternate Wheels and Load: H-18 or H-22 Calibrade with 1000 gram load
Evaluation: Weight loss method, visual changes (i.e. loss of luster; changes of surface; color changes; breakthrough of top coat)
Remarks: H-22 Calibrade wheels can be used on the more durable grades of leather subject to harsh wear; dyed, surface colored leather may require less severe abrasion with the CS-10 or CS-17 Calibrase wheels to produce a test of sufficient duration to judge correctly the degree of abrasion resistance

Leather (Shoe Soles)

Specimen: 4 inches diameter or square with ¼ inch center hole
Wheels and Load: H-18 or H-22 Calibrade with 500 gram or 1000 gram load
Evaluation: Weight loss or depth of wear method (maximum depth of penetration recommended is 1/16 inch)

General Notes

  • To generate useful data, specimens must not be stretched or wrinkled. A Textile Specimen Holder (E140-15) has a raised wear track to give the fabric extra tension when the ring is drawn down over the edge of the holder and the clamp plate is drawn down into the center recess.
  • Flexible materials are normally mounted on the standard specimen holder with the clamp ring. The E100-101 Specimen Clamp will accommodate flexible materials up to 1/32 inch thick. The E100-102 Specimen Clamp will accommodate flexible materials up to 1/16 inch thick. To prevent stretching and wrinkling, flexible materials can also be mounted to the S-36 or S-36-1 Mounting Card.
  • A transparent table (E100-10) may be used for viewing textile specimens against a strong light to determine the worn condition of the threads without removing the fabric from the holder. It has also be used with a small, high intensity light bulb located beneath the specimen holder and activating a photocell and electronic relay through the test material to turn off the Abraser when the established wear point is reached.
  • To subject specimens to a wet abrasion test, the Textile Holder, Tensioning Type for Wet or Dry Testing (E140-18) can be used. This holder is designed to give an initial stretch to woven fabrics so that they may be tested while moist with minimum tendency to wrinkle.

Reference

Title

Scope

AS 2001.2.28 - 1992 Methods of Test for Textiles This standard sets fourth a method for the determination of the abrasion resistance of textile fabrics (applicable to all textile fabrics including coated and laminated fabrics, a method for wet testing is also specified).
ASTM D3389 Standard Test Method for Coated Fabrics Abrasion Resistance (Rotary Platform Double-Head Abrader) This test method covers the determination of the resistance to abrasion of fabrics coated with rubber or plastics.
ASTM D3884 Standard Guide for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics (Rotary Platform, Double-Head Method) This guide covers the determination of the abrasion resistance of textile fabrics using the rotary platform, double head tester (RPDH)
ASTM D4685 Standard Test Method for Pile Fabric Abrasion This test method covers the determination of the abrasion of pile fabrics when the loss of pile tuffs occur, sometimes called pile pull out.
ASTM D7255 Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Leather (Rotary Platform, Double-Head Method) This test method covers the determination of the abrasion resistance of leather using the rotary platform, double-head tester (RPDH).
ASTM G195 Standard Guide for Conducting Wear Tests Using a Rotary Platform, Double-Head Abraser This guide covers and is intended to assist in establishing procedures for conducting wear tests of rigid or flexible materials utilizing the rotary platform, double-head abraser (RPDH).
CFFA-1 Standard Test Methods - Chemical Coated Fabrics and Film To determine the abrasion resistance of chemical coated fabrics and films using a rotary platform double head tester
Daimler-Chrysler LP-463KB-21-01 Wear Resistance of Trim Materials - Taber Method This procedure is a method of determining the wear resistance of trim materials by means of a rotary platform sample support and double abrasion wheel type machine.
Daimler-Chrysler MS-JP4-13 Automotive Carpeting  
EN 14327 Leather. Physical and mechanical tests. Determination of abrasion resistance of automotive leather. This European Standard specifies a method of determining the abrasion resistance of automotive leather.
Fed. Test Method Std. No. 191A Method 5306.1 Abrasion Resistance of Cloth: Rotary Platform, Double-Head (Taber) Method This method is intended for determining the abrasion resistance of cloths in terms of percent change in breaking strength, or breaking strength after a given period of abrasion, or the number of abrasion cycles required to produce a specified state of destruction. It is used to evaluate cloth durability.
Ford Laboratory Test Method BN 108-02 Resistance to Abrasion - Taber Abraser This procedure is used to test the abrasion resistance of textile fabrics, coated fabrics, genuine leather, cardboard, rubber floor mats, carpets, other floor covering materials, plastics and painted substrates.
Ford Laboratory Test Method BN 108-04 Resistance to Scuffing This procedure is used to determine the resistance to scuffing of materials such as painted substrates, vinyl, genuine leather and luggage compartment mats.
General Motors GM2751M Automotive Upholstery Fabric This specification describes aesthetic fabrics used for seat covers, door trim and other miscellaneous applications. The fabrics are made from fibrous textile materials and are either knit, woven or non-conventional in construction. This specification also covers bi-laminate, tri-laminate and moldable fabric construction.
General Motors HN0245 Determination of Resistance to Abrasion  
General Motors GMW3208 Rotary Abrasion Test, Taber Type This standard is used to determine abrasion resistance of materials using a rotary platform tester. [Note: This standard was written to commonize or replace methods used for testing of fabric materials.]
ISO 5470-1:1999(E) Rubber or Plastics Coated Fabrics - Determination of Abrasion Resistance This part of ISO 5470 describes a method of assessing the abrasive wear resistance of coated fabrics.
JIS L 1096 Testing for Woven Fabrics This Japanese Industrial Standard specifies the testing methods for the evaluation of general characteristics of woven fabric foundation cloth.
NF G 37-121 Rubber or Plastic Coated Fabric-Determination of the Wear Resistance by Rubbing with two Abrasive Wheels  
SAE J 1530 Test Method for Determining Resistance to Fiber Loss, Resistance to Abrasion and Bearding of Automotive Carpet Materials This test method covers determination of abrasion resistance, fiber loss and bearding resistance of automotive carpet materials.
SAE J 365 Method of Testing Resistance to Scuffing of Trim Materials This test can be used to determine the resistance to scuffing of test specimens such as fiberboards, fabrics, vinyl coated fabrics, leathers, and similar trim materials.
SAE J 948 Test Method for Determining Resistance to Abrasion of Automotive Bodycloth, Vinyl, and Leather, and the Snagging of Automotive Bodycloth The Taber method of test is applicable for determining the resistance to snagging and abrasion of automotive fabrics and/or vinyl-coated fabrics.