Provided your specimen is flat, a simple test for evaluating it's abrasion or wear resistance is the Taber Abraser or Taber Abrader. This instrument is commonly referenced in test specifications as the Rotary Platform, Double-Head (RPDH) Tester.
The test piece is secured to the instrument platform, which is motor driven at a fixed speed. Two abrasive wheels are lowered onto the specimen surface, and as theplatform rotates, it turns the two
| wheels. This causes a rub-wear action (sliding rotation) on the surface of the test-piece and the resulting abrasion marks form a pattern of crossed arcs in a circular band that cover an area of 30 cm2 against all angles of weave or grain. A vacuum system removes debris during testing.
Depending on the material being examined, different wear test configurations can be used.
Abrasive Wheels - Most existing wear test procedures reference the standard CS-10 Calibrase® or H-18 Calibrade® wheels, but there are other wheels that can provide more or less abrasive action. Plus, specialty wheels can be used for unique applications.
Test Load - The loads applied to the wheels can also be changed. The standard loads are usually, 250g, 500g or 1000g but a counterweight can be used to expand the range.
Specimen Tables - Provided a 6.35mm (¼”) center hole can be made in the test specimen, the table that is included with the abraser satisfies most rigid and flexible materials. Tests can be performed with or without either the clamp plate or clamp ring, provided the specimen is held firmly. Other tables are available to wear test materials that: do not have a center hole, stretch when being mounted, or need to be tested wet.
The test ends after completing a specific number of cycles (mass loss) or the finishing layer is worn (visual appearance). Other methods that can be used for evaluation include haze measurement, strength testing, volume loss, depth of wear, or coating removal.
The key components of the Taber Abraser include:
- Independently pivoted arms, which provide a free-floating action to:
- compensate for any minor unevenness in the specimen, and
- ensure uniform pressure of the abrasion wheels against the specimen at all times
- Sealed wheel bearing mounts, which are located at the free end of the pivoted arms and onto which the abrasive wheels are affixed
- Abrasive wheels which rotate and have (when resting on the specimen):
- the direction of travel being at acute angles between the periphery of the wheels and the specimen at the contacting portions,
- the angle of travel of one wheel periphery being opposite to that of the other
- motion in opposite directions, which is provided by the rotation of the specimen and the associated friction
- Vertical-force adjustments (weights), for varying the load of the abrader wheels on the specimen [Note: The abrader arms without auxiliary masses or counterweights apply a vertical force against the specimen of 2.45N (250gf) per wheel. A stud on the read end of the abrading arm may be used to carry a counter-weight.]
- Constant speed motor, for rotating the specimen holder and specimen
- Specimen holder, which consists of a rubber pad, clamp plate, nut and hold-down ring; and is removable and interchangeable
- Counter, for indicating the revolutions (cycles) of the specimen holder
- Vacuum system, to remove abraded material and debris that is generated during the test